Between 1788 and 1850 the English sent over 162,000 convicts to Australia in 806 ships. The first eleven of these ships are today known as the First Fleet and contained the convicts and marines that are now acknowledged as the Founders of Australia, and this is where their history begins
First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships which sailed from Great Britain on 13 May 1787 with about 1400 people to establish the first European colony in New South Wales. It was a convict settlement, marking the beginnings of transportation to Australia. The fleet was led by Captain (later Admiral) Arthur Phillip. They arrived at Botany Bay on 18 to 20 January, 1788 This was one of the world's greatest sea voyages — eleven vessels carrying about 1400 people and stores had traveled for 252 days for more than 15,000 miles (24,000 km) without losing a ship. Forty-eight people had died on the journey, a death rate of just over three per cent. Given the rigours of the voyage, the navigational problems, the poor condition and sea-faring inexperience of the convicts, the primitive medical knowledge, the lack of precautions against scurvy, the crammed and foul conditions of the ships, poor planning and inadequate equipment, this was a remarkable achievement. see http://firstfleet.uow.edu.au/search.html and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/First_Fleet#Ships_of_the_First_Fleet
The history of Australia must begin with the Boston tea party and the American War of Independence. These events shaped the stories of the lives for thousands of future Australians.
After the American War of Independence, America no longer accepted the 'riff-raff', England wished to send from their shores.
The English gaols were overcrowded with petty thieves, mostly from poverty stricken homes. They were considered a blight upon society and for many years had been shunted to America, where they were used as cheap labour for the 'well-to-do' Americans. These conditions and philosophy towards other human beings could only be held in a society which discriminated and divided itself into 'class'. "Class" was decided or chosen purely by being born into a family with money. Money did not make these 'class' better or more moral, just less easy to be caught if they "borrowed" a handerchief and then didn't return it. The idealsits in America decided that these underclass of people were only useful for a short time and it was much better to look at the black slave structure where they 'had them for life"
Most of the crimes for which our First Fleeters were convicted were crimes which in todays society would not even raise an eyebrow.
When the government was established in the New United States of America, they had the power to tell the British Government - no more will we accept your 'riff-raff'. Canada having ahd a abd exeprience with the 'felons of England" also refused. They also cited cost of the system as being a deterrent to their government.
A dilemma indeed for the Lords of the Admiralty, where to send the prison overflow. Three different expeditions were sent to South Africa, each ending disastrously with almost no survivors.
Reports had come to the Admirality from James Cook and other explorers, of the lush vegetation, clear waters and shining blue skies in the land ( Terra Australis Incognita - meaning unknown southern land), we have come to know as Australia. It was decided by The Lord Admirality, to transfer men from the hulls which had been sitting on the Thames for as long as three years to transport them to this new land. Historians agree that the real reason for choosing a land so far away was vague. Governor Philip in 1787 was only given a broad outline of his duties when Botany bay would be reached.
Ships of the First Fleet
Food and Supply Transports:
It is not well defined how many people actually arrived in Botany Bay on January 1788. Numbers vary depending on the research undertaken. Some give the numbers as low as 930 while others conclude almost 1300.people landed.
Among the First Fleet arrivals were convicts Andrew Goodwin (arrived on The Scarborough) and Lydia (also known as Letitia) Munro who came on the Prince of Wales.
Andrew Goodwin had been tried and incarerated on the hulks in the Thames for three years. Lydia Munro had been tried and transported within a month of the fleet sailing.
A young cousin of mine, Andrew Rushton (descendant of Andrew & Lydia Goodwin) became interested in, not only why the Fleet was delayed from the first date of departure, but also why so many of the First Fleet had been tried, convicted then sentenced to transportation within that last month before the new departure date. All the detainees were of previously good character. None had previous offences and all declared innocence of the crimes. All had skills which were to prove most useful in the new colony. Andrew's conclusions were that those in authority realised the skills of the convicts were negliglbe in setting up a new community. A young lawyer snatched from the street, sentenced to transportation became the new colony's advocate. Lydia Munro and her friend, Elizabeth Cole were seamstresses. Andrew's theory also gave a more credible explanation for the interest shown by the "establishment" when Lydia Goodwin and her friend were sexually assaulted by William Bloggis. In those early days of establishing a community with few unmarried women (abt 180) amongst. approximately 800 men, one imagines that were many stories of unwanted advances between men and women. Yet Lydia's case was treated with due respect. Whether she previously really knew Andrew Goodwin we will never know. Andrew and Lydia married and were sent to Norfolk Island with the new baby, Mary. Irene Schaffer's book "Three Times Exiled" details the adventures faced including the wreck of the ship "Porpoise"
Norfolk Island colony had been established to keep the land from French Explorers as well as being more fertile than the land now was discovered to be around Botany Bay. Governor Philip sent about half the population (approximately 500) to Norfolk Island with the commission to produce enough food for both communities. The next twenty years saw homes established, families grew in number, friendships established when once again upheaval struck. The French once again loomed as adversaries. In order to protect Australia, the inhabitants of Norfolk Island were evacuated and the land raised. All the French were to find, if they came, was a land burned and uninhabitable. The evacuees went their separate ways. Some to New South Wales, some to the new colony in Van Diemen's Land, renamed in later years, Tasmania. The 'H.M.S. Porpoise' sailed from Port Jackson to Norfolk Island in December 1807 to evacuate the second contingent of settlers and their families and deliver them to Hobart Town. The voyage took 22 days and the ship arrived amid bushfires on 18 Jan 1808. Andrew, Lydia and the family of 7 children left Norfolk Island on this voage of HMS Porpoise, to settle on a grant of land at Clarence Plains, Tasmania. Andrew and Lydia were to have 2 more children in Tasmania. John born in 1797 died before the family left Norfolk Island. Mary, aged 17, the eldest child of Andrew and Lydia had left Norfolk Island in company of William Fletcher. Little is known of her, except the possibility that she retained the name Munro with her descendants also carrying the Munro name. It was usual in those early days of colony for the child to be known by the mother's family name. Letitia Goodwin was born 11 June 1808 at Clarence Plains. Andrew (my ancestor in this story) was born in Campbell Town Tasmania in August 1811.
Of interest I'm sure only to family members is that another ancestor George Alfred Francis Moore was born at Clarence Plains in 1851. In April 2007 I too stayed with a long time friend (we'd met in Kindergaten) who now lives at Clarence Plains. Life does indeed come full circle. The dots connect assisting us to make sense of who we are and From Whence we Came.
Shown here pictorial images of the commerative plaques in St David's Park, Hobart Tasmania for those evacuees from Norfolk Island.
The First Fleet to Australia
11 ships arrived
18 - 20 January 1788
26th January 1788
(now celebrated on this date
each year as Australia Day)
Andrew Goodwin 1765 at Leek, Staffordshire, England - 1858 at Campbell Town, Tasmania, Australia
arrived on the Scarborough
eldest son of Samuel Goodwin (1747-1777) & Mary Waller (1852-1840)
married 14 Feb 1790, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Lydia Munro 1767 at Lying in Hospital, Endell St., Holborn, London, England - 1856 at Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
on the Prince of Wales
daughter of Alexander Munro (1751 - ) & Sarah (abt 1755 - )
The Scarborough carried convicts in the First Fleet as well as on the notorious Second Fleet
The Children of Andrew Goodwin and Lydia Munro
1. Mary Munro 1789 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia - died in England
married abt 1806 William Fletcher
2. Sarah Louisa Goodwin 1 dec 1791 on Norfolk Island - 26 dec 1872 Colebrook St James Tasmania Australia
married (1) 24 Oct 1808 at St Davids, Hobart Tasmania Australia
Benajmin Briscoe 1780 - 1819
son of Benajmin and Elizbeth nee Ind. Briscoe
(2) 30 May 1820 at St Davids, Hobart Tasmania Australia
Mark Ashby Bunker 1792 - 1868
son of Edmund & Mary Ashby
7 children of Sarah and Benjamin Briscoe: Mary Ann, William, George, Eliza Jane, Benjamin, Francis, Ann Elizabeth
8 children of Sarah and Mark Ashby:
Elizabeth, Margaret, Edward, Ruth, Louise Margaret "Lucy", Maria, Hannah Amelia Letitia, Caroline
3. John Goodwin 1794 on Norfolk Island Australia - bet 1805-1808 on Norfolk Island Australia
4. James Jacobus Goodwin 1796 in Kingston, Norfolk Island Australia - 10 May 1831 in Colebrook, Tasmania, Australia
married 1 Feb 1825 at Hobart Tasmania Australia
Maria Anna Clark 1808 - 1839 in Hobart Tasmania Australia
3 children of James and Maria: Peter, Matilda, Maria
5. Lucinda "Lucy" Goodwin 18 Mar 1798 on Norfolk Island Australia -
married 1827 in Leek Staffordshire England
Thomas Bullock aft 1772 - bef 1891
8 children of Lucy and Thomas Bullock: Elizabeth Lucy, Eliza, Jane, Harriet, Elizabeth, Thomas, Lucy, Samuel
6. Margaret Goodwin 17 Jan 1800 at Kingston, Norfolk Island Australia - 1829 in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
(one child Lucy Goodwin born 11 Sept 1817 in Tasmania ,Australia)
7. Maria Goodwin 18 feb 1802 on Norfolk Island - 29 April 1870 at Murray St, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
1. married 11 may 1837 in Hobart Tasmania Australia
William Sharman abt 1782 - 24 Oct 1848 in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
2. married 19 jun 1849 in Brown's River Church, Kingston, Van Diemens Land
John Everall abt 1799 - 6 oct 1855 in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
3. married 25 sep 1825 in New Norfolk, Tasmania, Australia
son of Joseph Underwood and Charlotte Suter
Richard Underwood 1801 in London, England - 29 jul 1830 in Hobart Town Van Diemens Land Australia
6 children for Maria and Richard Underwood: Mary Ann, Caroline, Charlotte, Joseph, Richard, Jane Matilda,
8. Elizabeth Goodwin 9 Sep 1803 on Norfolk Island - 10 feb 1890 Brunswick East, Melbourne Victoria Australia
married 14 Aug 1820 at St David's Cathedral, Hobart Tasmania Australia
Son of Robert Frost and Sarah Green
Robert Frost 1796 - 1855
9 children for Elizabeth and Robert Frost:
Caroline (1), Caroline(2), Susan louisa, Robert, William Henry, Arthur Thomas, Charles, Edward James, John Headman James
9. Ann Goodwin 1805 on Norfolk Island - 15 dec 1842 at Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
married (1) 7 May 1822 at St Davids Anglican Church, Hobart Tasmania Australia
William Hardy 1796 - 2 Dec 1836
(2) 16 Jul 1838 at Hobart Tasmania Australia
John Ulmer 1815 -1878
6 children for Ann and William Hardy: John, Frederick, Robert William, Thomas, Edward, James
10. Letitia Goodwin 11 jun 1808 at Clarence Plains Tasmania Australia - deceased Tasmania Australia
11. Andrew "Goodwin" known as "Gooding" aug 1811 in Campbell Town, Tasmania Australia
- 31 Jan 1885 at Parkville, Victoria, Australia
married 3 mar 1834 at Campbelltown Tasmania Australia
Lydia Hines 1804 - 1858
7 children for Andrew Gooding and Lydia Hines:
Elizabeth Anne, Belinda Jane, Andrew James, William George, Susannah Mary, Maria Charlotte, Ann
more stories on each individual child and their family to be presented shortly
This page was created by Gailea
PO Box 2368 Ascot, Qld 4011 Australia
The First Fleet from England to Australia
HMS Sirius.on which Andrew and Lydia travelled from Botany Bay to Norfolk Island. HMS Sirius sank off rocks at Norfolk Island
We are fortunate that these two 'First Fleeters' have been the subject of much historical research by Irene Schaffer and Thelma McKay in their book "Exiled Three Times Over!". Also the website of John Horton and Carol Brill and their pages take you to the Goodwin family/ies http://www.heavenandhelltogether.com/?q=node/2
Although the stories are well documented on the pages of many descendants it's as well to summarise them again on this page:
She was tried at Kingston upon Thames, Surrey on 5 April 1787 for stealing material with a value of 20 shillings. She was sentenced to transportation for 14 years having been originally sentenced to death, and left England on the Prince of Wales aged about 17 at that time (May 1787). She had no occupation recorded. She died in 1856.
Notes: Partner in the original crime was Ann Forbes.
Victim of an attempted rape on July 1788 by William Boggis.Married Andrew Goodwin on 2 March 1790 - a daughter had been baptised on 19 July 1789. They had 11 children in all.
He was tried at Kingston upon Thames, Surrey on 3 February 1783 for stealing a sheet with a value of 3 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left England on the Scarborough aged about 20 at that time (May 1787). His occupation was listed as fisherman.
Notes: Partner in original crime was William Hubbard. On 2 August 1788 received 50 lashes for “gambling for a knife”, sentenced to 100 lashes in September 1788 for attempting to rape Lydia Munro, and in July 1789 received 200 lashes for stealing a shirt from a hut. In 1789 was sentenced to wear a label with the word THIEF upon it.
He was tried at Old Bailey, London on 7 July 1784 for stealing lead from building with a value of 20 shillings. He was sentenced to transportation for 7 years and left England on the Scarborough aged about 20 at that time (May 1787). He had no occupation recorded. He died in 1835.
Notes: Partner in the original crime was William Butler
Married Lydia Munro on 2 March 1790 - a daughter had been baptised on 19 July 1789. They had 11 children in all..
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