William James Leviston
Colour Sergeant in "The Rum Corps"
                  25 Mar 1781 - Military Rd., Parish of St James, Dublin, Ireland
                   25 sep 1857 Nicholas St., Chilwell, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
            eldest of 5 children to William Leviston & Margaret Leslie


William James arrived
on the "Barwell" in 18 may, 1798 aged 18

               married (1)  18 jan 1807
          St Philips, Sydney,  New South Wales, Australia
Ann Gibbs
                                                                           4 dec 1787 Donyatt, Somerset, England
                                                                       - 13 feb  1811 Horsham Barracks, Sussex, England
                                                                     daughter of Elizabeth Gibbs



married (2) 15 apr 1811 Horsham, Sussex, England
Jane Victoria Champion  14 feb 1794
                                                         Horsham, Sussex, England - 9 jan 1878 Geelong, Victoria, Australia
                               eldest daughter of Thomas Champion & Elizabeth Bennett

William & Ann had 3  children

William & Jane had 12 children
     William & Jane with two children, arrived Sydney, New South Wales
on the "Glory"  14 sep 1818



A copy of research by Michael Bock listing further details on William James career and life may be found further down in this
article  which is also listed on World Connect Project  -Michael Bock under title "Mr"
Soldier's uniform in the Rum Corps
                         A second fleet of six ships left England  -  Guardian, Justinian,  Lady Juliana, Surprize, Neptune, Scarborough
The Guardian struck ice, and was unable to complete the voyage.  She was stocked with  provisions.  Only 48 people died in the first group of ships, but  this time 278 died during the voyage.  This time transporting the  convicts was in the hands of private contractors. The second Fleet also brought a new contingent of the New South Wales Corps

The New South Wales Corps. ( Rum Corps. ) "Renamed 1st /102nd Regiment of Foot "
"Renamed 1st /100th Regiment Royal Dublin Fusiliers"  1789 - 1810
The New South Wales Corps (  The Rum Corps) was formed in England in 1789 as permanent regiment to relieve the marines who had accompanied the First Fleet. The regiment, led by Major Francis Grose consisted of three companies to begin with and due to the remoteness and unpopularity of the posting they were comprised of officers on half pay, troublemakers, soldiers paroled from military prisons , soldiers enlisted from general prisons such as Savoy Prison, ex convicts in New South Wales and Marines (who wished to remain) commanded by Captain George Johnston ,Governor Phillip's aide-de-camp.  The regiment began arriving as guards on the Second Fleet in 1790. Major Grose arrived in Sydney in 1792 to take command and assume role of Lieutenant-Governor of the Colony.
http://freepages.history.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~garter1/102nd.htm

William James Leviston's father, William Leviston was in the 73rd and a sergeant in the 102nd Regiment. He may have arrived on 11 Febuary 1796 on the "Marquis of Cornwallis".  They must have been posted elsewhere during Willams service as  some children of William and Margaret Leviston were born in Lancashire, England.  In 1798, William James', his mother & siblings, came to Australia aboard the 'Barwell' which came to New South Wales specifically with an entire Company of recruits for the NSW Corps (AKA '100th Regiment'). The "Barwell", under Master John Cameron having embarked 296 prisoners, sailed from Portsmouth on November 7, 1797, and although detained for a fortnight by calms and adverse winds, ran out to the Cape in 74 days. She was detained there until March 19 because her officers, fearing they would not find a profitable market at Port Jackson, desired to dispose of their European trade goods, and she did not reach Sydney until May 18, 1798, 192 days out from England and 60 from the Cape (the plot/mutiny to seize the "Barwell" and how it was subsequently hushed up, may be read at The Plot on the Barwell.

William James Leviston enlisted for The New South Wales Corps  late in 1798

The 102nd regiment had served in America during the War 1810-1812. William was pensioned out of the army in 1818, returning with his wife Jane and their children to Hobart Tasmania (see B & M Chapman's website)

History of the Rum Rebellion
There was a serious shortage of coins throughout the British Empire in the late 1700s which led to the development of a vigorous barter system in the colony of New South Wales. Being highly sought after, storable, transportable, and easy to divide into different size portions, imported rum became the most accepted currency. In 1793 the enterprising NSW Army Corps saw the opportunity to purchase all the rum as it arrived giving them control of Australia’s first currency and thus becoming known as ‘The Rum Corps’.

After Europeans first settled in New South Wales, there was a shortage of currency – the English pound – in the colony. This resulted in the rise of bartering as a system of payment, with rum becoming the primary form of financial exchange.

The NSW corps, who were formed in 1792 to protect the fledgling colony, had a monopoly on the supply and importation of rum, which they exchanged for goods and services at favourable rates, and thus dominated the early political scene. This led many people to refer to them as the “rum corps”.

The prevalence of rum as a form of currency caused a number of social and economic problems to the colony, with workers squandering their wages for the inflated price of rum. By 1793, stills were being imported and distillation of rum was exacerbating the shortage of grain.

The effect of rum consumption on the colony led to the Government actively promoting the brewing of beer. In 1802 Lord Hobart wrote to Governor King –

“The introduction of beer into the general use among the inhabitants would certainly tend in a great degree to lessen the consumption of spirituous liquors; I have therefore, in conformity with your suggestion taken measures for furnishing the colony with a supply of ten tons of Porter, six bags of hops and two complete sets of brewing utensils.”

It may be a bit of a push to call it a public health measure, but Australia’s first government-owned brewery commenced production in Parramatta in 1804, with a capacity of 1,800 gallons of beer per week, and an eventual capacity of 3,000 gallons.
source : PDF printable version of Australian Drug Foundation – Dame Elisabeth Murdoch Oration, The National Hangover – Changing Our Drinking Culture, State Library of Victoria, Melbourne 9 December 2008 (PDF 58 KB)

Governor Bligh and The Rum Rebellion (26 january 1808 - twenty years since Capt Arthur Philips rasied the flag (26 jan 1788) declaring a British colony)
William Bligh, who does not drink, arrived in NSW in 1806 and immediately set about to curb the use of Rum as a currency and to limit the power of existing and past members of the Rum Corps. Naturally this met with resistance from The Corps and from the wealthiest man in the colony, John Macarthur. After more than a year of power-play Macarthur and the Rum Corps prevail. Bligh is deposed of office exactly 20 years after the establishment of the colony. It is the only military insurrection in Australia’s history.

Politics, greed and power go hand in hand whichever era or generation are involved. It maybe at the highest government levels or in a small business. It matters not if one person wishes for power, they scheme without remorse that their wishes beome paramount. Someone holds the purse strings and tries to influence another being or party. Resistance meets greed resulting in a loss situation for some or many. it is highly unlikely that the powerful will win long term, as honesty and turth do prevail, even if it takes longer than seems appropriate.

Sir Joseph Banks retained an interest in the colony ever since his visit to the new land with Captain James Cook. Sir Joseph was at 'odds' with John Macarthur. He considered Macarthur disruptive and tyrannical, especially since the shooting in a dual with a friend of Sir Joseph. He activaley lobbied against Macarthur's plan to export Merino sheep from England to the new colony as well as desiring a large land grant to establish the wool industry. Sir Joseph Banks recommended William Bligh for the role of Governor as he considered him to be a harsh man who would have sufficient strength to deal with Macarthur. At first Bligh was reluctant to accept the role, however Banks arranged for the salary to be doubled and for a man with six daughters this was a great incentive, especially with the promise that there was money to be amde in the new land. The outgoing governor, Philip King granted Bligh a large parcel of land. Bligh in return granted Mrs king land and then was reluctant to approve any other land grants which set up a field of resentment amongst the officers and other men of power within the community.

By the time Bligh arrived in the colony it was no longer just a penal colony. 10% of the population was made up of the New South Wales regiment, with a large proprotion of ex-convicts who had stayed to establish successful and influential businesses. The Regiment had been in the colony for a long enough period to have established property of value. As there was no jury system the Officers also controlled the courts, acting as Judge Advocate with the support of six officers.

Many of the community resented Bligh's coarse ways, honed from years at sea, coupled with his harsh views and being a stickler for the rules as set down by the Englsh Lords. Macarthur and Bligh continued to quarrel. Macarthur supported by his former colleagues, the officers of the "Corps'. Bligh was supported by many in the community but they didn't ahve the power or the money of the elite "Corps' group. Bligh wrote to Johnston chief officer of the Corps, while macarthur wrote his superiors. It appeared to Johnston that all avenues of diplomacy had broken down and with a contingent of men including Macarthur marched on government house in order to depose Bligh.

The outcome had long term effects on the colony as well as introducing social and cultural changes into Australian history.
The name "Rum Rebellion' was not coined for some 50 years after the event and as we can understand from events had very little to do with the actual rebellion, except in the first instance rum generated power and control for the officers of the Corp". This power from the use of rum had disintegrated years earlier with commercial business from free traders and the etnerprises ofex-convicts.

The regiment was recalled in disgrace to England, John Macarthur banished (in order to avoid conviction) for many years from the colony. Johnston was cashiered. England was far away where much antipathy still existed towards from his earlier foray "The Mutriny on the Bounty"

The political philosophy continues as to when does rule become despotic and how does the right to democarcy involve an act of mutiny? Indeed when is it mutiny and the right to impose a fair rule for all?  The removal of William Bligh as leader of the Australian community was the first of three acts where someone was removed from office against their will. Jack Lang in 1932 by the governor Philip Game. The third event was the removal of Gough Whitlam by the Governor General, by Sir john kerr in 1972. If you wish to read more see the perspective of one author in the Sydney Morning Herald

After the 26th January 1808 armed mutiny towards William Bligh, the Admiralty in England decided to no longer appoint naval officers and appointed in April 1809 Lachlan Macquarie as the new governor of the colony. Macquarie and his wife, Elizabeth sailed with the 73rd Regiment from Portsmouth in the storeship "Dromedary" and escorted by H.M.S Hindostan on 22 May 1809, and they arrived at Port Jackson on 28 December. He took up his commission as governor on 1 January 1810.  (see biography of Lachlan Macquarie)  He began a program of public works construction and town planning that gave opportunities to Emancipists (freed convicts), established the colony's currency, and encouraged exploration and settlement. His policy favouring Emancipist agriculture angered the large landowners and sheep farmers (Exclusionists), and he was recalled in 1821.
                                                             
Ancestry of Jane Victoria Champion
  eldest daughter of Thomas  & Elizabeth Champion

grandparents
James Champion 18 dec 1741
                            married
                               Sarah

Thomas Bennett 1760- deceased
              married
             Elizabeth Dray 6 feb 1760

parents
Thomas Champion 1770 Horsham, Sussex, England  -  
                                deceased Horsham, Sussex, England
              married 9 dec 1792 Horsham, Sussex, England
Elizabeth Bennett
    15 nov 1799 Horsham, Sussex, England -
                                deceased Horsham, Sussex, England


siblings:
Elizabeth born abt 1795


Ancestry of William James Leviston
eldest son of William & Margaret Leviston

parents
William Leviston  abt 1755 Dublin, Ireland - deceased
                          married 17 Dec 1780
                     St James Parish, Dublin, Ireland
                                  Margaret Leslie
abt 1760 - 1817 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

siblings:
John 30 mar 1783 Manchester, Lancashire, England -
                     9 may 1857 Geelong, Victoria, Australia
Maria 19 oct 1788 Liverpool, Lancashire, England -
                 1827 Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
David  abt 1791  -
                   3 jun 1831 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Mary Ann 10 dec 1791 Liverpool, Lancashire, England -
                                         abt 1839 Tasmania, Australia
       married 7 nov 1808  Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Joseph Beresford
14 jun 1789 Port Jackson, New South Wales, Australia
                    -  5 apr 1862 Hobart,Tasmania, Australia
child of Mary Ann Leviston & Joseph Beresford
                   Henry born 1820 - deceased
Children of William James Leviston & Ann Gibbs
William James
    1 oct 1804 Sydney, New South Wales,  Australia- 25 feb 1811 Horsham Barracks, Sussex, England
Elizabeth
  25 jan 1807 Sydney, New South Wales,  Australia - 15 feb 1811 Horsham Barracks, Sussex, England
Joseph
          6 feb 1809 Sydney, New South Wales,  Australia -  apr 1809 Sydney, New South Wales,  Australia

Ann and the children died as a result of measles epidemic Horsham Barracks, Sussex, England. More than
60 wives and children died as a result of the English conditions. When 'the Corps' returned to England they had no immunity to the diseases rampant in England. In the colony they had lived in an unpolluted environment, free of the usual disease. In the new land the major disease was starvation and dysentry.

Children of William James Leviston & Jane Victoria Champion

1. Mary Ann 1812 Guernsey, Channel Island,  UK  - 10 jun 1857 Geelong Hospital Victoria Australia
                                                 married 20 jun 1827 Glenorchy, Hobart, Tasmania Australia
John Gill
20 aug 1790 Daventry, Northhamptonshire, England - 23 oct 1857 Napoleans, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
son of John & Elizabeth Gill
Mary Ann & John had 12 children all born in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
William James, Ann Elizabeth, Eliza Delicia, thomas, Jane, Maria, Mary Ann, Esther, John, Catherine Rebecca, Theresa, Margaret

2. John abt 1815 outside Australia - 16 oct 1896 Victoria Australia  buried Bunninyong Cemetry, Victoria Australia

3. Henry Pounder Glory 7 jan 1818 At sea on the  "Glory" -  16 oct 1896 Napoleans, Victoria Australia
married (1) 1 sep 1851 Christ Church, Geelong, Victoria, Australia
Isabella Herrod 1835 -1857
daughter of Samuel Herrod & Isabella Butt
Married (2) 30 jul 1861 Bunninyong, Victoria Australia
Margaret Clinch 1846 -1935
daughter of Thomas Clinch & Margaret Cohan
married (3) Mary Ann Homewood
Mary Ann had 4 children accepted by Henry Pounder Glory Leviston

Henry & Isabella had  3 children
Thomas William, Henry (1), Henry (2)

Henry & Margaret had 11 children
Margaret, Henry Edward, Mary, John, David John, Frances, William, Jane, Louise, Edward & James

4. Joseph Daniel Samuel Hallery 25 May 1820 Hobart, Van Diemens Land, Aus - 1822 Hobart, Van Diemens Land, Aus

5. Martha Jane 9 apr 1821 Hobart, Van Diemens Land, Australia - deceased

6. Margaret Jane 9 apr 1821 Hobart, Van Diemens Land, Australia - 26 aug 1913 Tasmania, Australia
married 2 jan 1837 Newtown, Tasmania, Australia
David Isaac McGuire 1802-1870
son of Peter McGuire & Catherine Lemon
Margaret & David had 5 children all born in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
Catherine, Mary Ann, Julia, male, William, & Maria Agnes

7. Maria 27 sep 1823 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia - 23 feb 1883 Preston Hill, Carngham, Victoria, Australia
married
9 jul 1841 by rites and ceremonies of the Church of England and Ireland, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
William Stephen Martin Lanham
13 mar 1807 Horsham, Sussex, England - 12 may 1889 Carngham, Victoria, Australia
youngest of 8 children to  Henry Lanham 1760 - 1820 & Amey Sayers 1775 - deceased
Maria & William had 16 children
Ellen Elizabeth (1), William Henry, Maria Amey, David Leslie, Martha Jane, Thomas, Emily Selina, James, Robert Henry, Ellen Elizabeth (2), Emily, William Stephen Stamford, Mary, Annie, un-named, & Selina Alice

8.  Ann Elizabeth 30 sep 1825 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia - mar 1828 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia

9. Thomas 6 jan 1827 Tasmania, Australia - oct 1851 Nicholas St., Chilwell, Geelong, Victoria, Australia

10. David Leslie or Lester 22 jan 1830 Hobart, Tasmania, Australia - 9 apr 1908 Ballarat, Victoria, Australia
married 6 apr 1852 Church England. Geelong, Victoria, Australia
Caroline Grix  1835 -1914
daughter of Benjamin Grix & Lydia Drory
David & Caroline had 13 children
Benjamin David, William, Maria, Charles, Jane, Lydia, Albert Leslie, Thomas, Walter, Alfred Ernest,
Arthur Edwin, Florence Helena, & Caroline

11. James 12 may 1832  Glenorchy, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia - 1909 Rainbow, Victoria, Australia

12. Eleanor 12 dec1833 Glenorchy, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia - deceased
In 1813 the new Governor Lachlan Macquarie ordered that 40,000        Spanish Dollars be punched making a small coin which became known as ‘The Dump’ and a larger one which was called ‘The Holey Dollar’.  The Holey Dollar and The Dump soon replaced rum as the currency of the colony and remained in circulation for the next 13 years.
this page was created by Gailea
Brisbane, Queensland, Australia
gaele.arnott@gmail.com

Research of Michael Bock found on World Connect Project under the page title Mr

•Name: William James Leviston
•Sex: M
•Birth: 25 MARCH 1781 in St James, Military Road, Dublin, Ireland.
•Death: 25 SEPT 1857 in Chilwell, Geelong, Vic. Dc #4882
•Note:
He enlisted on 13th December 1798 (WO 25/1302) in the 100th Regiment of Foot (later 102nd Regiment) NSW Corps ( know as the 'Rum Corps') and served in the NSW Corps until 1810 when the Regiment was disbanded following the notorious "Rum Rebellion". The 100th Regiment was raised in England in 1789 for the specific purpose of garrisoning the Australian Colonies and Guarding and Overseeing Convicts, particularly in NSW. Many of its members returned to England to serve in the Regiment re-named the 102nd Regiment which then saw service in the American War of 1812 - 1817. Discharged 7th March 1818 (WO 97/1069) as a Colour Sergeant, this discharge also states he was born in the parish of St. James in the town of Dublin in the County of Dublin on the 25th March 1781.
After retiring from the British Army in 1818, he decided to return to the Australian Colonies and become a Free Settler. He brought his second wife, Jane Champion, and their two children with him. Upon William's return to Australia, he and his new family came to Hobart, Van Dieman's Land (Tasmania) and settled in Glenorchy where he was granted 200 acres of land. They had a large family and at one stage he had his mother, two brothers and a sister also in the colonies with him. William & Jane eventually moved to Victoria around 1844 and lived in Nicholas Street, Chilwell, Geelong where William died in 1857.
The following information on William James service record was taken from the Muster books and pay lists of the 100th Regt. of Foot. These dates are not necessarily precise as the information for each three months was recorded at the end of such a period at a quarterly muster. (WO 12/9900 -9907)
Also mention of James Levingston, No 27, enlisted 13th December 1800 in Captain Johnson's Company bounty five pounds ten shillings. (WO 12/9899 Muster books of the N.S.W. Corps)
Service record:
13 Dec. 1800 - 24 Oct. 1805 James Levingston/ Levinston serves in Captain Johnson's Company, Sydney as Private -- sick twice.
25 Oct. 1805 - 24 Apr. 1806 James becomes a drummer in Johnson's Co.
25 Apr. 1806 - 24 Jun. 1808 James transfers to Major's Co. as a Private, although is noted to be in the band.
25 Jun. 1808 - 24 Dec. 1808 James serves in Captain Lamb's Co., Sydney, in the band.
25 Dec. 1808 - 24 Jan. 1809 James serves in Captain John McArthur's Co., Sydney, in the band.
25 Jan. 1809 - 24 Mar. 1810 James serves in Lieutenant John Henderson's Co., Sydney, in the band.
25 Mar. 1810 - 24 Oct. 1810 William Levinston is a Coporal in the 1st Company and is on passage to England.
25 Oct. 1810 ----- William becomes a Sergeant, still in the 1st Company.
25 Oct. 1810 - Mar/Jun 1811 William, Sergeant, at Horsham, Sussex, has 7 days furlough between 25 Dec. 1810 and 24 Mar. 1811. (Married Jenny Champion Apr. 15th 1811 at Horsham, Sussex.)
25 Jun. 1811 - Mar/Jun 1812 William Leviston, Sergeant, stationed at Guernsey.
Jun/Sep 1812 - 06 Jun. 1813 William Levingston, Sergeant, stationed at St. George's, Bermuda.
06 Jun. 1813 - 11 Dec. 1813 William Levingston, Sergeant, on a secret expedition with Lieutenant John Piper's Co. (Americian History states that this Company scouted the area around Washington and Chekapeake Bay areas before the British Army burnt the White House in 1814.)
12 Dec. 1813 - Jun. 1814 William Levingston, Sergeant, with Carnegie and Madden Company's stationed at Bermuda. (Discharge papers claim 1 year 302 days in Indies.)
Jun. 1814 - 24 Mar. 1815 William, Sergeant, stationed Moose Island.
25 Mar. 1815 - Jun. 1817 William Leviston, Colour Sergeant, stationed at St. John, New Brunswick or Moose Island.
Jun/Sept 1817 - Sept/Dec1817 William at sea.
Sept/Dec 1817 - 19 Mar. 1818 William, Colour Sergeant, stationed at Hilsea.
19 Mar. 1818 - 28 Apr. 1818 William Leviston, Colour Sergeant, stationed at Chatham, Kent.

LEVINSTON Jas. Private ( half obliterated by blot but checked on WO25/643)
Age 24.5 (1 Sept. 1808) ; 5 ft 5 ins,
Service 4 yrs 161 days.
Born St James, Dublin, Ireland.
Dark complexion, Hazel eyes, Dark brown hair, Thin visage. WO25/642

Sunday Feb. 11th 1810
To be sold by Private Contract, a well built Dwelling House, weather-boarded and shingled, comprising two capital rooms, a good Kitchen well floored and lofted, with glass windows, a Garden, Stock Yard, and an excellent Well.
For further particulars apply to Wm Leviston, on the premises No.2, Soldiers Back Row.
Sunday Feb. 17th 1810
To be sold by Private Contract, and entered on immediately, a capital shingled and Weather-boarded House, glazed thoughout, containing 2 good rooms and a Kitchen, with Stock Yards and every suitable conveniency.
For further particulars apply to Wm Leviston, on the premises No.2, Soldiers Back Row.
(Sydney Gazette)

In May 1810 the 102nd Regiment sailed for England on the DROMEDARY, HINDOSTAN and the PORPOISE. William James his wife and three small children also sailed with the Regiment.
Disembarking at Portmouth late in October, the Regiment moved to Horsham in Sussex. They are recorded as arriving there in December 1810.




Father: William Levinston b: 1760
Mother: Margaret Leslie b: 1768

Marriage 1 Anne Gibbs b: 4 DEC 1787 in Donyatt, Somerset, England.
•Married: 18 JAN 1807 in St. Philip's Church, Sydney, NSW.
Children
1. William Leviston b: 1 OCT 1804 in Sydney, NSW.
2. Elizabeth Leviston b: 25 JAN 1807 in Sydney, NSW.
3. Joseph Leviston b: 6 FEB 1809 in Sydney, NSW.

Marriage 2 Jane Champion b: 14 FEB 1794 in Horsham, Sussex, UK.
•Married: 15 APRIL 1811 in Horsham, Sussex, UK.
Children
1. Mary Ann Leviston b: 1812 in Gurnsey, UK or Bermuda.
2. John Leviston b: 1815
3. Henry Pounder Glory Leviston b: 7 SEPT 1818 in On the Glory which arrived Sydney, NSW.
4. Joseph Daniel Samuel Hallery Leviston b: 25 MAY 1820 in Hobart, Tas. Bc #832.
5. Margaret Jane Leviston b: 9 APRIL 1821 in Hobart, Tas.
6. Maria Leviston b: 27 SEPT 1823 in Hobart Town, Tas.
7. Ann Elizabeth Leviston b: 30 SEPT 1825 in Hobart, Tasmania.
8. Thomas Leviston b: 6 JAN 1827 in Glenorchy, Hobart, Tasmania.
9. David Lester 'Les' Leviston b: 22 JAN 1830 in Hobart, Tasmania.
10. James Leviston b: 12 MAY 1832 in Glenorchy, Tasmania. Bc #4256.
11. Eleanor Leviston b: 22 DEC 1833 in Glenorchy, Tasmania. Bc #5261.
Horsham in abt 1800
a free ebook on Sussex by Eric Holmes
The original church built in 1793 was a wattle & daub hut seating 500 people, burnt down by convicts in 1798. The above building replaced the wattle & daub building. This church was then replaced in 1857 by the church which exists today
see further information on church history: http://www.sl.nsw.gov.au/discover_collections/history

The Neptune
Scarborough
Lady Juliana